The Basics of Data Communication

Data communication is essential for our digital world. It connects us to the devices and services we depend on. It includes a variety of techniques and media which dictate the way information is transmitted from one end to another. Understanding how this works helps us create reliable and efficient networks that provide the benefits of greater connectivity, such as improved business efficiency and productivity as well as innovations in automation.

The principle of data communication is the transmission of data from one computer to another through channels or mediums. This can be done via cables, satellite signal, radio frequency or wirelessly. A device or person who transmits data is referred to as the sender while the computer that receives the data is referred to as the receiver. A data communication network could have more than two computers involved in a process of communication.

Multiplexing and Demultiplexing are communication techniques that optimize bandwidth use and reduce costs. Both of these processes require specialized equipment that can combine and separate signals. Custom integrated circuits are typically used to perform this function and are found in various communications devices including cellphones, computers, and printers.

The mode of data communication that allows simultaneous two-way communication between a pair of devices is called full-duplex communication. This is a more complex mode than simplex transmission as it requires sending and receiving data at the same time.